Constructing in downtown areas is complex, both in terms of logistics and engineering. This type of construction is generally more expensive and time-consuming. Here are some challenges commonly faced in urban settings.
- Public Safety
Public safety is easier to manage on construction sites in more remote or sparsely populated areas. In urban areas, additional measures are required, such as fences to prevent access to the site and protective nets to prevent the fall of materials. Proper pedestrian management is also crucial, including designated pathways and accessibility for people with reduced mobility. Noise and work schedules must also consider the presence of nearby residences and offices.
- Adjacent Properties
The new construction zone can be just a few meters or less from an existing building in urban zones. Extreme caution must be exercised in such cases. Vibration needs to be minimized to prevent damage to neighbouring building foundations.
- Local Regulations
The Régie du bâtiment du Québec's building code already entails a set of standards and regulations that must be adhered to. Additionally, there are regulations imposed by the city and district, if applicable. There are also environmental rules to consider. These norms and regulations can vary significantly from location to location and are subject to rapid changes.
Logistics present a real puzzle for construction in urban areas. In addition to the construction site, factors such as worker access and control, worker parking areas, emergency and delivery access, material storage, construction waste management, and numerous other considerations must be considered. While all construction projects need to address these points, downtown projects must navigate with significantly limited space.
As with many things, the safety of downtown construction depends on the type of construction, the materials used, and the safety measures in place. The key to safe construction lies in meticulous planning, pre-construction plans that consider all logistical and legal aspects, and an adaptable contractor capable of handling unforeseen circumstances.
Various innovative and effective solutions are available to ensure smooth construction processes in downtown areas while guaranteeing the safety of workers, surrounding buildings, and the public.
Berliner walls: Berliner walls are particularly useful for limited spaces in urban environments. They can be constructed quickly and are cost-effective. They limit vibrations on structures and can be installed on almost any soil type. They also prevent soil slippage.
Deep foundations: Deep foundations provide a robust solution when surface space is limited. Driven piles are an example of deep foundations that transfer the construction load to more resistant soil layers. This technique minimizes the ground footprint while ensuring structural stability.
Vibration monitoring systems: Using vibration monitoring systems allows real-time measurement and control of vibration levels generated by construction work. This enables immediate corrective measures, if necessary, to prevent damage to surrounding structures.
Temporary shoring: In the case of constructions located in immediate proximity to existing buildings, temporary shoring can reinforce the stability of adjacent structures during construction. These temporary support structures are designed to absorb the loads and stresses exerted on the existing buildings, ensuring their integrity and safety during the construction phase.
Modular construction methods: Modular construction offers significant advantages in speed, quality, and minimizing disruptions on urban construction sites. By opting for prefabricated modules assembled on-site, disturbances to residents and neighbouring businesses are minimized while also accelerating the construction process.
Waste management techniques : Effective construction waste management is essential in urban environments with limited space. Implementing on-site sorting and recycling systems reduces environmental impact while facilitating waste disposal logistics.
Effective temporary signage: Temporary signage panels, safety barriers, floor markings, and appropriate detours can guide traffic and minimize disruptions during construction. By working collaboratively with local authorities and road services, an effective temporary signage plan (French website) can be developed, ensuring the safety of all road users while allowing construction work to continue.
Each downtown construction project presents unique challenges. A tailored approach and close collaboration between construction professionals, engineers, architects, and local authorities are essential to finding the best solutions for each situation. Using the right tools and work techniques makes it possible to have a safe construction site in urban areas.